Jared Diamond

  • Ce livre est une étude comparative, narrative et exploratoire des crises et des changements sélectifs survenus au cours de nombreuses décennies dans sept nations modernes : la Finlande, le Japon, le Chili, l'Indonésie, l'Allemagne, l'Australie et les États-Unis.
    Les comparaisons historiques obligent, en effet, à poser des questions peu susceptibles de ressortir à l'étude d'un seul cas : pourquoi un certain type d'événement a-t-il produit un résultat singulier dans un pays et un très différent dans un autre ?
    L'étude s'organise en trois paires de chapitres, chacune portant sur un type différent de crise nationale. La première paire concerne des crises dans deux pays (la Finlande en 1940 et le Japon des années 1850) qui ont éclaté lors d'un bouleversement soudain provoqué par un choc extérieur au pays. La deuxième paire concerne également des crises qui ont éclaté soudainement, mais en raison d'explosions internes (le Chili en 1973 et l'Indonésie en 1965). La dernière paire décrit des crises qui n'ont pas éclaté d'un coup, mais se sont déployées progressivement (en Allemagne après 1945 et en Australie dans les années 1970), notamment en raison de tensions déclenchées par la Seconde Guerre mondiale.
    L'objectif exploratoire de Jared Diamond est de déterminer une douzaine de facteurs, hypothèses ou variables, destinés à être testés ultérieurement par des études quantitatives. Chemin faisant, la question est posée de savoir si les nations ont besoin de crises pour entreprendre de grands changements, et si les dirigeants produisent des effets décisifs sur l'histoire.
    Tout en respectant la volonté première de ne pas discuter d'une actualité trop proche qui, faute de distance et perspective, rendrait le propos rapidement obsolète, un Après-propos, propre à l'édition française, esquisse, en l'état des données au printemps 2020, une réflexion sur la pandémie de la Covid-19.

  • La question essentielle, pour la compréhension de l'état du monde contemporain, est celle de l'inégale répartition des richesses entre les sociétés : pourquoi une telle domination de l'Eurasie dans l'histoire ? Pourquoi ne sont-ce pas les indigènes d'Amérique, les Africains et les aborigènes australiens qui ont décimé, asservi et exterminé les Européens et les Asiatiques ?
    Cette question cruciale, les historiens ont renoncé depuis longtemps à y répondre, s'en tenant aux seules causes prochaines des guerres de conquête et de l'expansion du monde industrialisé. Mais les causes lointaines, un certain usage de la biologie prétend aujourd'hui les expliquer par l'inégalité supposée du capital génétique au sein de l'humanité.
    Or l'inégalité entre les sociétés est liée aux différences de milieux, pas aux différences génétiques. Jared Diamond le démontre dans cette fresque éblouissante de l'histoire de l'humanité depuis 13 000 ans. Mobilisant des disciplines aussi diverses que la génétique, la biologie moléculaire, l'écologie des comportements, l'épidémiologie, la linguistique, l'archéologie et l'histoire des technologies, il marque notamment le rôle de la production alimentaire, l'évolution des germes caractéristiques des populations humaines denses, favorisées par la révolution agricole, le rôle de la géographie dans la diffusion contrastée de l'écriture et de la technologie, selon la latitude en Eurasie, mais la longitude aux Amériques et en Afrique.

  • Les passagers, munis de titres de transport électroniques, de bagages de cabine passés aux rayons X, attendent, guidés par un personnel aux uniformes seyants et sous l'oeil d'une police affairée à regarder les écrans de contrôle de sécurité, d'embarquer pour Wapenamanda, Goroka, Kikori, Kundiawa et Wewak. Nous sommes à Port Moresby, capitale de la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée. Rien que de normal.

    L'essentiel est ailleurs : ces hommes d'équipage, ces policiers à gadgets électroniques et ces passagers coutumiers de l'avion sont les descendants directs de ces millions de Papous, découverts par une expédition australienne en 1931, vivants isolés dans leurs diverses vallées montagneuses, en petites sociétés closes, dépourvues d'écriture, de monnaie, d'écoles et de gouvernement centralisé, à un âge trop vite jugé "de pierre". En quelque quatre-vingts années, la population des Highlands de Nouvelle-Guinée a vécu des changements qui prirent des millénaires à advenir dans le reste du monde.
    Jared Diamond, qui découvrit la Nouvelle-Guinée en 1964 pour sa première étude de terrain ornithologique, pose la question, rarement envisagée : que nous apprennent ces Papous de ce que les Occidentaux ont perdu avec la disparition des sociétés traditionnelles - ces sociétés structurées en groupes de faible densité de population (allant de quelques dizaines à quelques milliers d'individus), subsistant de la chasse et de la cueillette, de la culture ou de l'élevage, et que les contacts avec les grandes sociétés industrielles ont transformées de façon limitée ?
    Elles ont en effet inventé des milliers de solutions aux problèmes humains différentes de celles adoptées par nos sociétés modernes. Certaines - par exemple, des manières d'élever les enfants, de traiter les personnes âgées, de demeurer en bonne santé, de bavarder, de passer le temps libre, de pratiquer le multilinguisme ou de régler les litiges - semblent supérieures à celles des pays occidentalisés et riches. Les sociétés traditionnelles peuvent nous inspirer quelques meilleures pratiques de vie, mais également nous aider à évaluer d'autres avantages de notre propre société que nous avons fini par considérer comme normaux.

  • WITH A NEW AFTERWORD FROM THE AUTHOR Why has human history unfolded so differently across the globe?In his Pulitzer Prize-winning book, Jared Diamond puts the case that geography and biogeography, not race, moulded the contrasting fates of Europeans, Asians, Native Americans, sub-Saharan Africans, and aboriginal Australians. An ambitious synthesis of history, biology, ecology and linguistics, Guns, Germs and Steel remains a ground-breaking and humane work of popular science.'A book of big questions, and big answers' Yuval Noah Harari, bestselling author of Sapiens

  • More than 98 percent of human genes are shared with two species of chimpanzee. The 'third' chimpanzee is man. Jared Diamond surveys out life-cycle, culture, sexuality and destructive urges both towards ourselves and the planet to explore the ways in which we are uniquely human yet still influenced by our animal origins.

  • At some point during the last 100,000 years, humans began exhibiting traits and behavior that distinguished us from other animals, eventually creating language, art, religion, bicycles, spacecraft, and nuclear weapons--all within a heartbeat of evolutionary time. Now, faced with the threat of nuclear weapons and the effects of climate change, it seems our innate tendencies for violence and invention have led us to a crucial fork in our road. Where did these traits come from? Are they part of our species immutable destiny? Or is there hope for our species’ future if we change?
    With fascinating facts and his unparalleled readability, Diamond intended his book to improve the world that today’s young people will inherit. Triangle Square’s The Third Chimpanzee for Young People is a book for future generation and the future they’ll help build.
    From the Hardcover edition.

  • From the author of No.1 international bestseller Collapse, a mesmerizing portrait of the human past that offers profound lessons for how we can live todayVisionary, prize-winning author Jared Diamond changed the way we think about the rise and fall of human civilizations with his previous international bestsellers Guns, Germs and Steel and Collapse. Now he returns with another epic - and groundbreaking - journey into our rapidly receding past. In The World Until Yesterday, Diamond reveals how traditional societies around the world offer an extraordinary window onto how our ancestors lived for the majority of human history - until virtually yesterday, in evolutionary terms - and provide unique, often overlooked insights into human nature. Drawing extensively on his decades working in the jungles of Papua New Guinea, Diamond explores how tribal societies approach essential human problems, from childrearing to conflict resolution to health, and discovers we have much to learn from traditional ways of life. He unearths remarkable findings - from the reason why modern afflictions like diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer's are virtually non-existent in tribal societies to the surprising benefits of multilingualism. Panoramic in scope and thrillingly original, The World Until Yesterday provides an enthralling first-hand picture of the human past that also suggests profound lessons for how to live well today. Jared Diamond is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of the seminal million-copy-bestseller Guns, Germs, and Steel, which was named one of TIME's best non-fiction books of all time, and Collapse, a #1 international bestseller. A professor of geography at UCLA and noted polymath, Diamond's work has been influential in the fields of anthropology, biology, ornithology, ecology and history, among others.

  • From the author of Guns, Germs and Steel, Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive is a visionary study of the mysterious downfall of past civilizations.Now in a revised edition with a new afterword, Jared Diamond's Collapse uncovers the secret behind why some societies flourish, while others founder - and what this means for our future.What happened to the people who made the forlorn long-abandoned statues of Easter Island?What happened to the architects of the crumbling Maya pyramids?Will we go the same way, our skyscrapers one day standing derelict and overgrown like the temples at Angkor Wat?Bringing together new evidence from a startling range of sources and piecing together the myriad influences, from climate to culture, that make societies self-destruct, Jared Diamond's Collapse also shows how - unlike our ancestors - we can benefit from our knowledge of the past and learn to be survivors.'A grand sweep from a master storyteller of the human race'
    ;;Daily Mail'Riveting, superb, terrifying'
    ;;Observer'Gripping ... the book fulfils its huge ambition, and Diamond is the only man who could have written it'
    ;;Economist'This book shines like all Diamond's work'
    ;;Sunday TimesJared Diamond (b. 1937) is Professor of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. Until recently he was Professor of Physiology at the UCLA School of Medicine. He is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of the widely acclaimed Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies, which also is the winner of Britain's 1998 Rhone-Poulenc Science Book Prize.

  • Anglais Collapse

    Diamond Jared


    In Jared Diamond’s follow-up to the Pulitzer-Prize winning Guns, Germs and Steel, the author explores how climate change, the population explosion and political discord create the conditions for the collapse of civilization
    Environmental damage, climate change, globalization, rapid population growth, and unwise political choices were all factors in the demise of societies around the world, but some found solutions and persisted. As in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond traces the fundamental pattern of catastrophe, and weaves an all-encompassing global thesis through a series of fascinating historical-cultural narratives. Collapse moves from the Polynesian cultures on Easter Island to the flourishing American civilizations of the Anasazi and the Maya and finally to the doomed Viking colony on Greenland. Similar problems face us today and have already brought disaster to Rwanda and Haiti, even as China and Australia are trying to cope in innovative ways. Despite our own society’s apparently inexhaustible wealth and unrivaled political power, ominous warning signs have begun to emerge even in ecologically robust areas like Montana.
    Brilliant, illuminating, and immensely absorbing, Collapse is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time, raising the urgent question: How can our world best avoid committing ecological suicide?

  • The bestselling author of Collapse and Guns, Germs and Steel surveys the history of human societies to answer the question: What can we learn from traditional societies that can make the world a better place for all of us?
    Most of us take for granted the features of our modern society, from air travel and telecommunications to literacy and obesity. Yet for nearly all of its six million years of existence, human society had none of these things. While the gulf that divides us from our primitive ancestors may seem unbridgeably wide, we can glimpse much of our former lifestyle in those largely traditional societies still or recently in existence. Societies like those of the New Guinea Highlanders remind us that it was only yesterday-'in evolutionary time-'when everything changed and that we moderns still possess bodies and social practices often better adapted to traditional than to modern conditions.The World Until Yesterday provides a mesmerizing firsthand picture of the human past as it had been for millions of years-'a past that has mostly vanished-'and considers what the differences between that past and our present mean for our lives today.
    This is Jared Diamond's most personal book to date, as he draws extensively from his decades of field work in the Pacific islands, as well as evidence from Inuit, Amazonian Indians, Kalahari San people, and others. Diamond doesn't romanticize traditional societies-'after all, we are shocked by some of their practices-'but he finds that their solutions to universal human problems such as child rearing, elder care, dispute resolution, risk, and physical fitness have much to teach us. Provocative, enlightening, and entertaining, The World Until Yesterday is an essential and fascinating read.

  • Anglais Norse Greenland

    Diamond Jared

    A timely and fascinating exploration of the collapse of prehistoric Norse society in Greenland-'excerpted from the Pulitzer Prize-winning author Jared Diamond's Collapse
    This excerpt from the New York Times-bestselling book Collapse takes a timely and fascinating look at prehistoric Norse Greenland-'the closest approximation of a controlled experiment in collapse in history. One island, two unique societies (Norse and Inuit). Only one of these societies would succeed-'the other would fail. But how? With his trademark accessibility and comprehensiveness, Diamond documents how environmental damage, climate change, loss of friendly contacts and the rise of hostile ones, and the unique political, economic, and social settings of prehistoric Greenland combine to demonstrate exactly why and how societies choose to fail or succeed.
    Jared Diamond's latest book, The World Until Yesterday: What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies?, is available from Viking.

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